Contents               : The course will cover some fundamental concepts in molecular genetics of eukaryotes in details. Model organisms will be introduced at the beginning of the course followed by the discussion of genetics screens that are typically used to identify and characterize new genes in eukaryotes. Replication will be lectured with more attention being paid to the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Lectures on transcription and translation will focus on cis- and trans-acting factors specific for eukaryotes, avoiding the basic biochemistry covered elsewhere. In addition, students will be encouraged to use theoretical knowledge in research by evaluating and presenting a research article as a group. 

Objectives            : 1. To ensure that students are aware of the genetics screening methods and model organisms that are used to study eukaryotic phenotypes.

2. To emphasize to students that fundamental concepts such as replication, transcription and translation are more complex in eukaryotes.

3. To ensure that students can apply experimental approaches related to replication, transcription and translation to research.

4. To enable students to critically assess scientific publications.

5. To teach students project based individual and group work.

6. To enable students to design, conduct and report on a small research Project individually and as a group.

The course will introduce some of the many tools that are available for analysis of proteins, genes and genomes. The theoretical bases of these tools will be discussed and various programs and algorithms will be demonstrated and applied by the students. Students will learn how to perform database searches; pairwise and multiple sequence alignments and construct phylogenetic trees. Next generation sequencing (NGS) and analysis of NGS will be discussed as well as gene expression methods such as RNA sequencing. Bioinformatic approaches to protein analyses will also be covered.

The course will cover some of the databases available in biology such as NCBI and SwissProt. It will also demystify computational tools like BLAST, FASTA and other search algorithms currently employed in biological research. Finally, many tools which can be employed in projects will be explained in varying detail. Among these are multiple sequence alignment, building of pylogenetic trees, predicting secondary information about genes and proteins. Prediction of sub cellular localization of proteins, gene structure prediction, and discovery of putative functional domains of proteins are among the information that may be predicted.

The course will only scratch on the surface of a large number of tools that are very helpful in daily biological research. For each of these tools the confidence that can be put into the result is discussed in detail.

This course examines the cell. Topics include:

Visualizing Cells,

Membrane Structure,

Membrane Transport of Small Molecules and the Electrical Properties of Membranes,

Intracellular Compartments and Protein Sorting,

Intracellular Membrane Traffic,

The Cytoskeleton,

Cell Junctions and the Extracellular Matrix,


The course aims to teach basic concepts of Biology, Molecular Biology, and Genetics for the Food Engineering Students.