Introduction. Sampling. Metallographic sample preperation: cutting, grindling, polishing, etching. Optical microscopy. Reflected light and transmitted light microscopy. Mechanical tensile test. Fracture Surface Analysis. TGA, DTA, SPM. Fundamentals of crystallography. Properties of X-rays and electron beam. Use of X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine crystal structures, chemical compositions of metallic and ceramic materials. Scanning electron microscope, its principles of operation.